The composition. The cornerstone. Each photo is built on it. You can`t do anything without it. Yes, it can be neglected. However, in order to break the rules of the composition, to receive the excellent photo, at first you need to learn them and learn to follow them.

Of course, it is impossible to tell everything about the composition in one article. There are many books written about the composition. If you don`t read at least one of them, you won`t be able to shoot the great pictures. We will mention only some of the most important moments.

The linear perspective

The photographer transmits a three-dimensional world with its volumes and reliefs on the two-dimensional plane. The perception of the space by the people in reality is connected with the linear perspective.

The laws of the linear perspective:

figures and objects are smaller for us when they are located farther;

parallel lines, directed from the foreground to the distance, tend to converge at a single point;

linear perspective of the shot depends on the choice of the camera angle - the height at which the camera is located, and the distance to the subject. Also the lens focal length effects on the displaying of the perspective: the wide-angle lens stretches perspective, telephoto - compresses.

The tonal perspective

You can convey the illusion of the depth of the space by the tonal perspective. It`s patterns include:

a clarity and a precision of the outlines of the objects decrease with their estrangement from the observer's eyes;

a color saturation decreases with the estrangement;

the contrasts of the light and shade in the depth are softened;

the depth seems lighter than the figures and objects, which are in the foreground.

The angle of the shooting

The shooting point isn`t less important than the perspective. It may be normal (eye-level), the top and the bottom.

Changing the point of shooting, we influence the height of the horizon in the picture: if the point of shooting is the lowest, the horizon line will fall; at the top - raise.

If we shoot from the lowest point, even the low objects, located in the foreground, will at the same height with the tallest structure of the background, or project on the sky background. It brings the great expressive possibilities.

At the top point of the shooting, the objects project on the background of the ground, and it suggests a feeling "pressed" to the ground.

Selecting the shooting point depends on your wishes about the subject and features, which you want to emphasize.

The picture format and the border of the photo

The format can be horizontal, vertical and square, depending on the wish of the author. In the border of the photo must be located the material that have attracted the attention of the photographer and that he wants to tell the viewers. In addition, the point of view of the author on the subject is very important too. The small objects can be included in the picture fragmentary. However, the main subject won`t be located in such a way - because all the accents will be deposed and the audience won`t understand you.

The semantic and figurative center of the photo

The accent should be on the main object. It must attract the viewer's attention. Often the picture witch has the equally harshness of all its parts, prevent this, because the photo becomes overloaded with the trivia, and the plot center is lost. This will lead to misunderstanding the idea of the photographer, which he wanted to convey.

The size of the plan and the tone of the image play an important role. The main subject of the shot can`t be very small, dark or overexposed, subtle.

The equilibrium

It is a ratio of the left and right parts of the photo, its top and bottom, which was correctly found by the photographer. It gives a sense of a harmony, stability and a compositional slimness.

The easiest way to achieve a balance in the picture – is to place the important object in the center of the image. However, such a composition isn`t always acceptable - the image may seem primitive. In order to avoid this, you must enter into the photo small details, which will emphasize the character of the object.

Such a composition is static, and you can`t use it during the shooting the subjects, which are not static.

In order to lead a dynamic photo to the equilibrium, you must enter into the picture a section and fill it with the important objects.

The symmetrical compositions also will be balanced.

The light and shadow structure plays an important role in the equilibrium of the photo – the distribution of the light and dark areas through the picture.

The rhythm

Rhythm – is the alternation of the elements of the composition, their recurrence at the regular intervals, the order of their combination.

Rhythm is in picture of the flower petals, in the lapping waves, in the alternating planks in the fence and so on.

Rhythm, which you see in the life, can`t mechanically be transferred to the picture. It is the basis of the composition of the photo, and becomes a rhythm of lines or the alternating colors.

Rhythms can be located in the horizontal or in the vertical direction of the picture. This can be the diagonals rhythm, the alternating diagonal lines and so on.

The light spots and hotspots can also be rhythmically aligned.

The right application of the rules of the composition will help you to create the excellent photos. The bold and thought-out violation of them will help to create a masterpiece.

We wish you to take the beautiful pictures!